“THE ROLE OF QUALITY INFRASTRUCTURE WITHIN A FREE TRADE AREA.”
Welcome to the 2019 ARSO Week for the 25th ARSO General Assembly Events
17th – 21st June 2019, Nairobi, Kenya
The Government of the Republic of Kenya hosts the 25th ARSO General Assembly events, through the Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS) at the Panari Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya on 17th – 21st June 2019. Welcome!!!!!!!!
The 25th ARSO General Assembly Events – “THE ROLE OF QUALITY INFRASTRUCTURE WITHIN A FREE TRADE AREA.”
Ongoing Quality Infrastructure Development in Support of World Trade will continue to be critical especially in an increasingly complex global trading system, and as more African countries ratify the AfCFTA agreement, ARSO is already playing a strategic role and positioning itself to prepare the Member States to be able to unpack Opportunities and Threats in trade. ARSO President, Dr. Eve Gadzikwa, at the WTO Regional Workshop on the TBT Agreement for English-speaking African Countries, held in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, 29 to 31st January 2019.
The 25th ARSO the General Assembly events comes after the signing of the AfCFTA Agreement by 52 African Countries and ratification by 23 Africa Countries, exceeding the threshold on ratification to enable the Agreement to enter into force by 30th May 2019, and subsequent implementation face beginning July 2019, after the next Extra-Ordinary Heads of State and Government summit slated for 7th July 2019 in Niamey, Niger. As this happens, the Standardisation community and Trade Experts are much aware that, though tariffs on trade in commodities are eliminated via trade agreements among the nations that conclude the agreements, the problem of nontariff barriers (especially Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) with regards to Standards, Technical Regulations, and Accreditation, Conformity Assessment and Metrology measures) remain a challenge and an obstacle to the AfCFTA goals, and look forward to the opportunities offered by the AfCFTA Agreement under Annex 6 on TBTs and Annex 7 on SPS to cooperate in the development, harmonisation, and implementation of standards, technical regulations, conformity assessment procedures, accreditation, metrology; capacity building and awareness creation, to facilitate trade within AfCFTA.
The role of ARSO is harmonising standards and Conformity Assessment Procedures in Africa is understood in the context of the growing strategic importance of standards and conformity assessment systems in supporting trade objectives. In order to address the new international dynamics of global trade, a trade policy to meet challenges of the post-Uruguay Round trading environment, under the WTO TBT/SPS Agreement, is required, that addresses the challenges of Standards, Technical Regulations, Conformity Assessment and Trade into the 21st Century, and within the operations of a Free Trade Area. In addition to promoting economies of scale to facilitate multiple export markets, common standards and conformity assessment procedures are also directly linked to the efficient functioning of international markets and Free Trade Areas (FTAS).
Understanding the Mandate of ARSO in the Context of Africa’s Trade performance and Implementation of the AfCFTA.
Formed in 1977 by the African Union (formerly OAU) and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), and currently with a membership of 37 African countries, (Algeria, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire, Congo Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, New State of Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sudan, South Sudan, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe, with Zanzibar as an observer member), the ARSO mandate of coordinating the harmonisation and implementation of African Standards and conformity assessment procedures continues to be a strategy for promoting the intra-African Trade and integration Agenda.
The USA National Research Council (1995) asserts that even when standards in different countries have been harmonized, without harmonised Conformity Assessment procedures between trading partners) the free flow of trade is inhibited if products are subjected to redundant testing and certification requirements in multiple export markets destinations making Trade contentious and expensive...
The intra-Africa trade, which is expected to enhance the absorptive capacity of the continent and mitigates its exposure to global volatility, and which at 15% compares unfavourably with Europe (67%), Asia (58%), North America (48%) and Latin America (20%) (Afreximbank 2018). On the global scale the African countries, though, have equally made considerable progress in their economic transition towards a market-based system and inclusion, the challenge to adjust to the standards, norms and regulations (TBTs) which are used in international trade, remains. The report highlights that the Continent continues to engage at the periphery (3%) of the global economy, with a prediction of 4% by 2030 (AfDB et al. 2014.). This dismal performance in Africa’s external and internal trade, therefore, has remained a major focus of much enquiry, with the Africa Progress Panel (African Progress report 2014) and World Bank 2013, giving evidence that NTBs, especially the Technical Barriers to Trade present substantial obstacle to increasing intra-regional and intra-African Trade, given that with different Regional Economic Communities (RECS – EAC, SADC, COMESA, EAC) African countries face the challenge of variation in certification, testing, inspection practices, and standards used by different countries on the basis of the WTO obligation and rights..
The African Development Bank’s (AFDB 2019) African Economic Outlook projects Africa’s GDP growth to accelerate to 4.0 percent in 2019 and 4.1 percent in 2020 but only if there will be growth of industrial activities to spur intra-African Trade and among other things and mostly of great relevance to the mandate of ARSO, the removal of all nontariff barriers on goods and services, especially the Technical Barriers to trade that have been a great hindrance to the free movement of Goods and services in Africa (AFDB 2019).
The mandate of ARSO is to facilitate intra-African and World Trade through Harmonisation Standards and (ARSO THCs) Conformity Assessment Procedures (ARSO CACO) which directly aims at reducing Technical Barriers to Trade in Africa.
The Organisation’s key programmes such as Standards Harmonisation based on thirteen (13) Technical Harmonisation Committees, with Experts from all over Africa ensures the harmonisation and implementation of African standards (in reference to Africa Standards Harmonisation Model-ASHAM) across the continent. The ARSO Conformity Assessment Programme under the ARSO CACO drives the harmonisation of Conformity Assessment regimes in Africa, promoting Mutual Recognition Arrangements and Common Regulatory Framework. The ARSO DISNET, including the African Trade Web Portal ensures the dissemination Trade and Standards information to facilitate compliance to standards and trade requirements across the continent. Harmonisation of African Standards was recognised at the very beginning as a means of promoting not only trade among African countries but also enabling African enterprises to participate effectively in the global trading system. This still remains the core mandate of ARSO. For more information visit the ARSO Website: http://www.arso-oran.org/
The 25th ARSO General Assembly events have been scheduled to take place from 17th – 21st June 2019, as highlighted below:
- 60th ARSO Council Meeting and 3rd ARSO Champions Meetings – Monday and Tuesday, 17th – 18th June 2019. Only for ARSO Council and ARSO Champions members
The operations of ARSO are administered by the Council consisting of the President and twelve active Member Bodies. Under the Strategic Oversight and the Technical Management Council Committees, the 60th Council meeting to be held on 17th – 18th June 2019, is expected to review the implemented activities based on the programmes and approve business plans
- ARSO Champions Meeting (Closed meeting/only ARSO Champions – Botswana, Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Sudan, South Africa, Uganda, Zimbabwe/President).
- ARSO Council members Only – Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, DR Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Tunisia, President, and Secretary General).
- The African Day of Standardisation and Official Opening of the 25th ARSO General Assembly events– 19th June 2019.
The event is open to all ARSO members and all the invited delegates and is scheduled for 19th June 2019, under the theme “The Role of Quality Infrastructure within a Free Trade Area”, under the following Sessions:
- Session 1 – Regulatory Framework and Policy – TBT and SPS within the AfCFTA Agreement.
- Session 2 – African Automotive Industry – Can Africa leverages on standard and Regulatory Framework to boost this industry?
- Session 3 – Intra Africa Trade – Role of Harmonisation of Standards and Conformity Assessment.
- Session 4 – Market access – The role of sustainability standard and Eco labelling – EMA (ECOMARK Africa) sharing experience.
The aim of African Day of Standardisation is to raise awareness among African Regulators, Industry, Academia, Consumers, Policy Makers and the entire African Citizens on the benefits of standardisation and the related Quality Components to Africa’s Industrialisation, Integration, and Economic Transformation and Development.
- 25th ARSO General Assembly – 20th June 2019 – The event is open to all ARSO members and all the invited delegates
The General Assembly event is open for all ARSO members and Stakeholders and invited Delegates. The Assembly will be held on 20th June 2019. Representatives of all the 37 ARSO Member States, African Union Officials, African Organisations, Regional Economic Communities, Internationals partners, Organisations and Donors are expected to participate. The Assembly is being held to review the progress of the Organisation. With the ratification of the AfCFTA Trade Deal by the African Heads of State, the Assembly presents ARSO and the stakeholders’ opportunity to discuss their Cooperations and review their programmes and within the opportunities presented by the CFTA. The ARSO President Elect-Mr. BOOTO a NGON Charles, also the Director General, ANOR/Cameroon will assume the office of the ARSO President for the 2019-2022 Term of Office.
The Assembly will also elect the ARSO Council members for the 2019-2022 term of office.
- ARSO Continental Standardisation Essay Competition Award Recognitions: 20th June 2019
The event is set to be held on 20th June 2019 at the Gala Dinner and all invited delegates and member States are expected to participate. The Essay Competitions are meant to create awareness among the African Youth in addressing issues of interests and greater impact on Africa’s economies and sustainable development with the strategic role of standardisation. The themes are based on the African Union themes and declarations of the year, as highlighted below:The 6th, 2018-2019, Standardisation Essay competition was under the theme, “The role of Standardisation in Winning the War against corruption for Africa’s Transformation Agenda and Sustainable Development” and was based on the theme of 30th Summit of Assembly of Heads of State and Government held on 22 – 29 January 2018, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, “Winning the Fight against Corruption: A Sustainable Path to Africa’s Transformation”. 11 (Botswana, Cameroon, Kenya, Ghana, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zanzibar, Zimbabwe,) countries participated and submitted the best five Essays for continental competition.
The 25th ARSO General Assembly Events is expected to approve the theme of the 2019 – 2020 ARSO Continental Essay Competition. The theme is being proposed in the context of the declaration of 2019 as the African year of addressing refugee issues under the theme “Year of Refugees, Returnees and Internally Displaced Persons in Africa: Towards Durable Solutions to Forced Displacement” as was declared by the African Union at the 32nd Ordinary Session of the Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the African Union (AU) held at the headquarters of the Union in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on 10th – 11th February 2019.
- Made in Africa Expo – 17th – 21st June 2019
The Made in Africa Expo, which will run concurrently with the programmes, from 17th – 21st June 2019, is targeting the Kenya SMEs, Industries, Traders and Producers, and is meant promote manufacturing and industrialisation in Africa to boost the intra-African Trade. The Expo is expected to present the message that countries that manage to pull out of poverty are those that promote their local industries and make their products competitive. The Made in Africa Expo under the African Day of Standardisation is therefore meant to create more awareness on the role of Manufacturing in Africa and the need to promote the quality of the African products for competitiveness through standardisation and effective Quality in Infrastructure. The Expo highlights are on the benefits of standardisation on ensuring increased manufacturing and trade through Quality, safe and competitive goods and service to facilitate intra-Africa trade and global market access. Delegates are expected to visit the Exhibitions. The Exhibitors will be accessed based on ARSO Certification Criteria and the best three winners will be recognised and awarded, at the Gala Dinner on 20th June 2019, where they will also highlight their Quality Management Activities. In the picture, ARSO President, Dr. Eve Gadzikwa and ARSO Secretary General, r. Hermogene Nsengimana, right, in a Made in Africa event in Victoria Falls in Zimbabwe during the ARSO President Forum in April 2017.
Understanding the 25th GA Theme within the Context of the AfCFTA Benefits, TBT Challenges and the TBT Agreement Opportunities to address the TBTs.
Contextualising the AfCFTA Agreement: Countdown from Inception to Ratification, The benefits and the TBT Challenges and Opportunities offered by the AfCFTA under Annex 6 on TBT and Annex 7 on SPS.
The AfCFTA is set to enter into Force
The Tralac (May 2019), in its report (https://www.tralac.org/resources/by-region/cfta.html) highlights that the decision to establish a Continental Free Trade Area by an indicative date of 2017 was adopted by the 18th Ordinary Session of the Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the African Union, held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in January 2012, which also endorsed the Action Plan on Boosting Intra-Africa Trade (BIAT) which identifies seven priority action clusters: trade policy, trade facilitation, and productive capacity, trade-related infrastructure, trade finance, trade information, and factor market integration. Thereafter the African leaders held an Extraordinary Summit on the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) from 17-21 March 2018 in Kigali, Rwanda, during which the Agreement establishing the AfCFTA was presented for signature, along with the Kigali Declaration and the Protocol to the Treaty Establishing the African Economic Community relating to the Free Movement of Persons, Right to Residence and Right to Establishment. In total, 44 out of the 55 AU member states signed the consolidated text of the AfCFTA Agreement, 47 signed the Kigali Declaration and 30 signed the Protocol on Free Movement. As at end-March 2019, only three countries have yet to sign the consolidated text of the AfCFTA Agreement: Benin, Eritrea and Nigeria.
The Agreement is officially set to enter into force by 30th May 2019, and officially during the next African Union Extra-Ordinary Heads of State and Government summit slated for 7th July 2019 in Niamey, Niger, after the ratification of the AfCFTA Agreement, by 23 African Countries, including Ethiopia, exceeding the threshold set by Article 23 of the AfCFTA Agreement. This sets the beginning of the implementation phase of the AfCFTA, and therefore highlights the importance with which the African leadership in cooperation with the Policy Makers and Standardisation Stakeholders should deal with policy issues regarding the development of Quality Infrastructure to address the Technical Barriers to Trade to facilitate the Free movement of Goods and Services within the AfCFTA and therefore boost the Intra-African Trade.
The 23 countries that have deposited their instruments of AfCFTA ratification with the AUC Chairperson are Ghana, Kenya, Rwanda, Niger, Chad, Congo Republic, Djibouti, Guinea, eSwatini (former Swaziland), Mali, Mauritania, Namibia, South Africa, Uganda, Ivory Coast (Côte d’Ivoire), Senegal, Togo, Egypt, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Sierra Leone and Saharawi Republic and Zimbabwe.
The Benefits of the AfCFTA
The African Continental Free Trade Agreement, is lauded, as probably the biggest trade agreement since the establishment of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), and a concrete, provable culmination of the goals of African Renaissance and Afro-optimism. The public debate about what AfCFTA will bring about portrays an optimistic picture. Many commentators claim that the agreement will bring significant benefits to millions of consumers and a marked reduction in poverty in many countries but concerns remain that implementation could be the agreement’s weakest link with many traders and service providers being cautiously optimistic about AfCFTA’s potential benefits due to NTBs and Technical Barriers to Trade:
Iso Paelay, who manages The Place Entertainment Complex in Community 18 in Accra, Ghana, told Africa Renewal. “I am dreaming of the day I can travel across borders, from Accra to Lomé [in Togo] or Abidjan [in Côte d’Ivoire] and buy locally manufactured goods and bring them into Accra without all the hassles at the borders,” .
The main objectives of the AfCFTA are to create a single continental market for goods and services, with free movement of business persons and investments, and thus pave the way for accelerating the establishment of the Customs Union. As the largest single free Trade area in the world, a computable general equilibrium (CGE) analysis by Cheong, Jansen and Peters (2013) estimates that the CFTA could stimulate intra-African trade by up to USD 35 billion per year, or 52% (above the baseline) by 2022. It could also lead to a USD 10 billion decrease in imports from outside the continent while boosting agriculture and industrial exports by up to USD 4 billion (7%) and USD 21 billion (5%) respectively. The continent’s gross domestic product will rise from USD 1.7 trillion (2010) to USD 2.6 trillion (2020) pushing up consumer spending from USD 860 billion (2010) to USD 1.4 trillion (2020) and thus potentially lifting millions out of poverty (McKinsey Global Institute, 2010).
The AfCFTA is expected to expand intra-African trade through better harmonization and coordination of trade liberalization and facilitation and instruments across the RECs and across Africa in general. Once in place, the AfCFTA will cover a market of 1.2 billion people and a combined gross domestic product of about $3 trillion, making it the world’s largest free trade area since the formation of the World Trade Organization seven decades ago.
Economists believe that tariff-free access to a huge and unified market will encourage manufacturers and service providers to leverage economies of scale. The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) predicts that the AfCFTA, which is prioritizing the production of value-added goods and services that are “Made in Africa”, has the potential to increase intra-African trade by 52.3% by eliminating import duties, and to double this trade if non-tariff barriers, especially the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBTS) are also reduced (UNECA 2018). Experts (Mevel, Simon and Karingi, Stephen – 2012, Dr. Mukhisa Kituyi – 2016, Henri J. Nkuepo, 2012) highlight the fact that the AfCFTA is poised to contribute significantly to increased competitiveness of Africa’s industrial products through harnessing the economies of scale of a large continental market; increased rate of diversification and transformation of Africa’s economy and better integration of the continent into the global economy. Donald Kaberuka, The ex-president of the African Development Bank wrote on Twitter, “Posterity will recall this day,”. His sentiments were shared by the former executive secretary of UNECA Carlos Lopes who wrote, “Africa made it.” Lopes noted that it took the continent a year to operationalize the trade deal, “an absolute record for these type of agreements.” Trade deals have a reputation for being slow and drawn-out affairs with the European Union-Canada deal, for instance, taking seven years to negotiate after being 22 years in the making.
Aruna Bineswaree Bolaky, an economist at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, says: “In order to benefit from the removal of customs duties, companies will have to be subject to rules of origin. That means that a product will have to be manufactured using mostly African inputs up to a certain level and using a procedure that has not yet been negotiated. For example, if Kenya wants its T-shirts to be exempt from customs duties, it will have to use Egyptian rather than Chinese cotton.”
In an interview with the Africa Renewal, Dr. Mukhisa Kituyi, Secretary-General of the UN Conference on Trade and Development, a body that deals with trade, investment and development, opines that “We look to gain more in industrial and value-added jobs in Africa because of intra-African trade. While experts believe that Africa’s big and industrialising economies will reap the most from a free trade area, the ECA counters that smaller countries also have a lot to gain because factories in the big countries will source inputs from smaller countries to add value to products.
Vera Songwe, Executive Secretary of the ECA (UNECA), in an interview with Africa Renewal, states that “The types of exports that would gain most are those that are labour intensive, like manufacturing and agro-processing, rather than the capital-intensive fuels and minerals, which Africa tends to export,” emphasizing that the youth will mostly benefit from such job creation. In addition, African women, who account for 70% of informal cross-border trading, will benefit from simplified trading regimes and reduced import duties, which will provide much-needed help to small-scale traders.
Naguib Sawiris, the executive chairman of the Egyptian investment holding Orascom said that The AfCFTA aims to address the trading impediments with regards to policy inconsistency and nontariff barriers, including incoherent Regulatory Frameworks, at the Africa CEO Forum in Kigali, Rwanda, 25th – 26th March 2019, wherein a speech at the same conference, Rwandan president Paul Kagame said making sure AfCFTA succeeds represents “the very highest consequence for Africa’s future.”,
Former Nigerian president Olusegun Obasanjo expressed the view that the agreement is “where our [economic] salvation lies.”
Prof. Landry Signé, Distinguished Fellow at Stanford University’s Center for African Studies, states that the AfCFTA is expected to offer substantial opportunities for industrialization, diversification, and high-skilled employment in Africa. The single continental market will offer the opportunity to accelerate the manufacture and intra-African trade of value-added products, moving from commodity-based economies and exports to economic diversification and high-value exports.
The TBT Challenges on the Implementation of the AfCFTA
The Challenge of the TBTs in in Free Trade Areas and in Africa has remained an issue of interest and focus for scholars, leaders and development partners in Africa Naguib Sawiris, the executive chairman of the Egyptian investment holding Orascom at the Africa CEO Forum in Kigali, Rwanda, 25th – 26th March 2019, decries the low trade among African on African Products. He says “The shelves of Choithrams Supermarket in Freetown, Sierra Leone, boast a plethora of imported products, including toothpicks from China, toilet paper and milk from Holland, sugar from France, chocolates from Switzerland and matchboxes from Sweden, yet many of these products are produced much closer in Ghana, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa, and other African countries with an industrial base. So why do retailers source them halfway around the world? The answer, he said: a patchwork of trade regulations and tariffs that make intra-African commerce costly, time wasting and cumbersome. https://qz.com/africa/1586526/africa-free-trade-deal-gets-gambia-signature-to-go-into-force/
- The Panel (African Progress report 2014) reports that in the SADC region, NTBs are seen as the most significant constraint on the growth of intra-SADC trade (AECOM 2011).
- A World Bank (2011) study finds that notified NTBs affect products accounting for 20% of regional trade. Between 2000 and 2010, the total number of NTBs in Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique increased from 400 to over 1,400 (Kalaba 2012).
- In the ECOWAS region, Traders travelling from Ghana to Nigeria are reported as having to pay 40 different fees Keyser (2012).
- The World Food Programme, which is the largest purchaser of food in West Africa, has reported frequent problems obtaining export permits, quality certificates and other documents from different countries in order to process transactions (Keyser 2012).
- In the EAC, region, on one estimate, eliminating NTBs in maize trade between Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda would generate benefits of US$5 billion (Africa Progress Report 2014).
- World Bank (2012) underlines the magnitude of the problem. Food producing companies in Kenya can export to developed markets in Japan, Europe, and Singapore, which each have strict regulations, yet are unable to export to countries on the continent because of regulations. For example, the allowable moisture content for imports of maize is set at 13 percent in Tanzania, 13.5 percent in Kenya, and 14 percent in Uganda. The tolerance for insect damage is one percent in Uganda, two percent in Kenya, and three percent in Tanzania.15 Malawi requires that maize should meet the following requirements: maximum of 14 percent moisture content, maximum of 2.6 percent of foreign matter, maximum of 11.5 percent of broken grains, and aflatoxin of 3ug per kilogram.
- Among key trading corridors between Burkina Faso, Ghana and Benin, the cost of obtaining an SPS certificate for maize has been calculated at US$40/ton, equivalent to nine percent of the farm gate price (USAID 2011).
Akihiko Yanase, et al, (2014), in his presentation on the role of Product Standards in a Free Trade Area while agreeing that Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) have dramatically increased, with a record of 511 notifications to the WTO in 2012 and with 319, among them, in force, identifies that, though tariffs on trade in commodities are eliminated via trade agreements among the nations that conclude the agreements, the problem of nontariff barriers (especially Technical Barriers to Trade (TBTs with regards to Standards, Technical Regulations, Accreditation, Conformity Assessment and Metrology measures) remains a challenge and an obstacle to their goals.
Under the AfCFTA, the TBT Challenge will still remain an issue in the implementation given that under the TBT Annex 6, article 3: “the State Parties reaffirm their rights and obligations under the WTO TBT Agreement in respect of the preparation, adoption, and application of standards, technical regulations, conformity assessment procedures and related activities”, Experts, leaders and policy makers already anticipate that, under AfCFTA, African countries will continue to be confronted with the main TBT issues.
This means that the challenge of mandatory regulations set by governments to meet their objectives regarding health, safety, and the environment, and for market-driven standards, set within the private sector, will continue (John Keyser 2012 – Policy Note no. 33, July 2012, www.worldbank.org/afr/trade), as
- governments will introduce more and more regulatory requirements to address inter-lia health, safety or environmental issues in accordance with the WTO TBT Agreement and the rights and obligation of members
- consumers will demand safety and quality assurance
- Private and public authorities will continue to scrutinise imported/exported goods for compliance
- Producers increasingly will need reputable evidence that their products and services meet regulatory, technical and other requirements.
African countries, would be confronted with the main challenge of the need to improve the quality of regulation to remove the NTMs (TBTs) in goods, and to deliver competitive markets, while achieving essential public policy objectives as per Article 3 of Annex 6.
The AfCFTA Opportunities to address the TBTs
It is important to underline that the elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers, and Regulatory compliance, called for by the ACFTA initiative offers African countries a great long-term opportunity to address the TBTs issues:, for example:
- The AfCFTA binds all State parties to commit to the progressive elimination of tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade in goods,
- The TBT Annex, under Article 5: Fields of Cooperation, has provided that States Parties shall cooperate in the development and implementation of standards, technical regulations, conformity assessment procedures, accreditation, metrology, capacity building and enforcement activities in order to facilitate trade within the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA).
- Further in Article 6.2 b, c, d and f respectively, calls on the State parties to adopt the harmonised African standards by ARSO and AFSEC.
- This is aligned with the provisions of Article 8.1 of the SPS annex on Harmonisation where States Parties shall cooperate in the development and harmonisation of sanitary or phytosanitary measures based on international standards, guidelines and recommendations taking into account the harmonization of SPS measures at the regional level.
The Role of ARSO and other Quality Infrastructure Institutions.
Due to their mandate and influence on the establishment of the legal and institutional framework, Quality Infrastructure governance structures in Africa, such as ARSO, NSBs and the PAQI institutions have a decisive influence on how the regional economic integration and the challenges of the TBTs presents a stepping stone or rather a stumbling block towards the liberalization of trade within the CFTA.
Of importance therefore, to the AfCFTA Implementation, are the ARSO Collaborative efforts in ensuring the harmonisation of African standards (through ARSO THCs) as a basis Technical Regulations; Conformity Assessment and Mutual Recognition Arrangements (ARSO COCO); Awareness creation and promotion of the Culture of Quality among policy makers, SMEs and Consumers on the benefits of standards (African Day (21st March) of Standardisation, African Quality Award); Standards and Trade Requirements Information dissemination and outreach (ARSO DISNET/African Trade Web portal); Capacity Building and Training (Education about standardisation, Workshop, Seminars). ARSO is also currently working with the African Union to fast-track the development of African Quality Policy.
ARSO in a nutshell
ARSO is an intergovernmental Organisation established by the Organization of African Unity (OAU, currently African Union (AU)) and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) in 1977, with 21 African Governments, including Burkina Faso as founding members.
The principal mandate of ARSO is to harmonise African Standards and conformity assessment procedures in order to reduce Technical Barriers to Trade and therefore promote intra-African and international Trade as well as enhance the industrialization of Africa, thus ARSO:
- Harmonises national and/or sub-regional standards as African Standards and issues necessary recommendations to member bodies for this purpose;
- Initiates and co-ordinates the development of African Standards (ARS) with reference to products which are of peculiar interest to Africa;
- Encourages and facilitates adoption of international standards by member bodies;
- Promotes and facilitate exchange of experts, information and co-operation in training of personnel in standardisation activities;
- Co-ordinates the views of its members at the ISO, IEC, OIML, Codex and other international organisations concerned with standardisation activities;
- Creates appropriate bodies in addition to the organs of the organisation for the purposes of fulfilling its objectives.
Currently ARSO has 37 member States (Algeria, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire, Congo Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, New State of Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sudan, South Sudan, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe), with Zanzibar as an observer member.
1. General Assembly
The General Assembly composed of the ARSO members is the Supreme organ of ARSO. The General Assembly meets once a year.
2. The Council
The operations of ARSO is administered, in accordance with the policy laid down by ARSO, by the Council consisting of the President with a minimum of number of six or a maximum of twelve active Member Bodies.
3. ARSO Central Secretariat
The ARSO Central Secretariat led by the Secretary General is the implementing Organ of ARSO and implements the ARSO Programmes, activities and the decisions of the Council and the General Assembly.
- President – Dr. Eve Gadzikwa
- Vice-President – Tunisia, Mr. Riadh SOUSSI
- Treasurer – Burkina Faso, Issaka ZOUNGRAMA
- Secretary General – Dr. Hermogene Nsengimana.
Focussing on 2017-2022 ARSO Strategic Framework
The 23rd ARSO General Assembly is being held with a greater focus on the ARSO beyond 2017 under the ARSO Strategic Framework 2017-2022 in which ARSO in its programmes aspires to:
- Facilitate the implementation of the Continental Free Trade Area and Integration
- Facilitate Africa’s industrialisation and Integration
- Strengthen Quality Infrastructure in Africa through the PAQI Forum and cooperation with RECs.
- Increased Harmonisation and implementation of African Standards and relevant international standards.
- Strengthen the Conformity Assessment to serve the interest of African industries, farmers, producers and consumers.
In Photo: January 1981 – The then Minister of Foreign Affairs of Kenya, Dr. Robert Ouko, and the Secretary-General of ARSO, Dr. Zaudi Feleke, Signing the Headquarters Agreement between ARSO and the Government of Kenya, facilitating the Hosting of ARSO on a Diplomatic Status
KEBS Vision, Mission and Motto
ARSO traces its genesis to the unfolding events and the prevailing mood of the African socio-political and economic Pan-Africanism of the 1970s and the culmination of which at a Conference held at the historic and important city of Accra, Ghana. The idea of a continental standardisation body had received considerable impetus from the buoyant and optimistic mood that characterised the post-independence period in most of Africa. The mood then, under the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), was one of pan-African solidarity and collective self-reliance born of a shared destiny with standardisation viewed as a guidepost of the destiny and bedrock of African Economic Integration Agenda and a route to linking up of the fresh Africa’s economy with the rest of the world and to deliver the African Common Market for economic prosperity of the continent.
It was under these circumstances that, on 10th – 17th January 1977 in Accra, Ghana, 21 African Governments, including the Government of the Republic of Kenya, under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) and the OAU convened the Founding Conference of ARSO at the Accra International Conference Centre, ACCRA, Ghana, also attended by the following international Organisations: the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), the Arab Organization for Standardization and Metrology (ARSM); the International Organization for Legal Metrology (OIML), and the Union of African Railways (UARr).
The creation of ARSO was the inspiration and the vision of some great sons of Africa among them the Late Mr. Francis Beda Maiko of Kenya, and his peers Mr Zawdu Felleke of Ethiopia, the Late Dr. Fletcher Banda of Malawi, the late Dr. Ademola Banjo of Nigeria and the Late Dr. Robert Oteng of Ghana, Dr. Fanad Ahmed Sobly, EOS, Egypt; M. Oyono Owono, Cameroon, Mr. Shyam Kumar Gujadhur, Mauritius, and Mr. Mohamed Hadi Krema, Libya, who, when attending an ISO General Assembly in the Mid-70s as representatives of Africa had a common vision for a continental standardisation body ARSO. After short hosting of the ARSO Central Secretariat at the UNECA Headquarters in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and thereafter in Accra Ghana by the Government of the Republic of Ghana, Kenya took over the hosting as from 1981 to date, under a Diplomatic Status, through a signed Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Kenya and ARSO.
Kenya membership in ARSO.
Through the Kenya Bureau of Standards, Keya continues to play a pivotal role in ARSO as host country, an active founder member, Council member and most of all ARSO Champion for the East African Region (Djibouti, Eritrea and Somalia) on Resources and Membership mobilisation. Kenya is an active member in ARSO Programmes, including African Standards Harmonisation Technical Committees; ARSO Documentation and Information Management System (ARSO-DISNET) responsible for the dissemination of Standardisation and Trade information and acts as a platform for information exchange among ARSO members and Stakeholders; ARSO Conformity Assessment Committee (ARSO CACO) responsible for the implementation of the activities of the ARSO Conformity Assessment programme; ARSO Consumer Committee (ARSO COCO) which acts as the African consumer voice in Standardization and focuses on involving African consumers in standards development activities.
In Photo: Mr. Bernard Nguyo, left, the Acting Managing Director, the Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS) when he hosted the ISO Secretary General, MUJICA Sergio, at KEBS during the 34th ISO Committee on Conformity Assessment (CASCO) Plenary and Workshop in Nairobi, Kenya on 29th April – 3rd May 2019.
It is to be highlighted that Kenya has actively been participating in the in the yearly ARSO Standardisation Essay Competition with the following Results:
2nd Essay Competition, 2014: Theme: “The role of Standards in promoting sustainable Agriculture and food security in Africa” based on the AUC theme of 2014 year for agriculture in Africa. 16 Countries participated, namely: Cameroon, Congo Brazzaville, Egypt, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda Zambia and Zimbabwe, with the 1st 3 winners as follows:
- 1st Position – Yesashimwe Nehemiah – Rwanda
- 2nd Position – Julius P. Kessy and Karen Alibera Katabwa, both from Tanzania
- 3rd Position – Ishimwe Diane – Rwanda; Ike Chukwebuka Christopher – Nigeria and Joseph Kamuyu Ngugi – Kenya.
3rd Essay competition, under the theme, the role of standards in promoting Women Empowerment and Development towards Africa’s Agenda 2063″ Kenya emerged 1st position where 8 African countries participated: Cameroon, Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa and Zimbabwe:
- 1st: Hope Katanu Mutie – Kenya
- 2nd Position: Denis Evarist Nubha – Tanzania
- 3rd Position: Djomor Sampson – Ghana & Ogbaga, Sunday Thomas of Nigeria.
5th Essay Competition, 2017: Theme – “Role of Quality Infrastructure and Standardisation in facilitating Trade and Sustainable Development within the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA)” Kenya Emerged 3rd position, where 10 Countries participated: Botswana, Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, South Africa and Zimbabwe, with the 1st 3 winners as follows:
- 1st Position Nwokolo Chidiebale Ignatius – Nigeria
- 2nd Position Two Laina Ndapanda Nambinga – South Africa
- 3rd Position Three Khajira Christopher – Kenya.
The 6th, 2018-2019, Standardisation Essay competition under the theme, “The role of Standardisation in Winning the War against corruption for Africa’s Transformation Agenda and Sustainable Development” Kenya emerged 1st and 3rd position, where 11 countries participated: Botswana, Cameroon, Kenya, Ghana, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zanzibar, Zimbabwe.
- 1st Position – Reu Elondanga – Kenya
- 2nd Position – Letisia Einhad Mbawala – Tanzania
- 3rd Position – Ann Wanjiku – Kenya.
Hosting of the ARSO General Assembly and Council Meetings 2018-2019, where Kenya hosted the following ARSO Meetings
- 59th ARSO Council meetings – 5th – 6th December 2018 – Boma Hotel, Nairobi.
- The Launching Workshop of African Certification Scheme/the Eco Marck Africa – 8th March 2019 – Sarova Stanley Hotel, Nairobi
- 25th ARSO General Assembly Events – 17th – 21st June 2019 – Panari Hotel.
On behalf of the ARSO Fraternity, the ARSO Central Secretariat wishes to immensely express its appreciation to the Government of the Republic of Kenya for the Great Support it has continued to accord ARSO as the Host Country.
We highlight the initiative by the Government of the Republic of Kenya to review its visa policy for most African countries as per the Goal of Agenda 2063, where Africans want free movement of its people across within the African borders through the African Common Passport Initiative. This has made it easy for the many ARSO Member States to come to Nairobi on very short notices for meetings. We thank You, Kenya.
The Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS)
Currently, under the leadership of Mr. Bernard Nguyo, the Acting Managing Director, the Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS) has remained the premier government agency for the provision of Standards, Metrology and Conformity Assessment (SMCA) services since its inception in 1974. Over that period its main activities have grown from the development of standards and quality control for a limited number of locally made products in the 1970s to the provision of more comprehensive Standards development, Metrology, Conformity Assessment, Training and Certification services. With the re-establishment of the East African Community (EAC) and Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), KEBS activities now include participation in the development and implementation of SMCA activities at the regional level where it participates in the harmonization of standards, measurements and conformity assessment regimes for regional integration. KEBS operates the National Enquiry Point in support of the WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT).
Role of KEBS
- Provision of the country’s Quality Infrastructure for the facilitation of trade: In the present era of Trade Globalization, market entry requires compliance to international standards and evidence of such compliance through an internationally recognized Standards, Measurement Systems (Metrology), Conformity Assessment and Accreditation.
- Support of Kenya Industries: A functioning quality infrastructure helps to increase productivity in manufacturing and service delivery. This helps to create jobs, encourages investment and can promote the careful use of natural resources.
- Sustainability of production systems: A quality infrastructure also helps bring about improvements in environmental protection through sustainable consumption and production, health care, consumer protection, and distributes national wealth more equally by enabling the transfer of knowledge to small enterprises.
For More Information: https://www.kebs.org/.
Expected Outcome of the 25th General Assembly events
Development of strategies for the implementation of the ARSO Programmes under the ARSO Strategic Plan 2017 – 2022 addressing policy issues on Standardisation in Africa.
- Understanding the Role of ARSO and other Quality Management Institutions in the implementation of the AfCFTA Agreement
- Understanding the importance of regulatory coherence in the efficient implementation of the AfCFTA
- Understanding the importance of Regulatory Coherence in the Automotive Industry
- Identification of Programmes and Strategies for the implementation of the African Standardisation Agenda for the wider African Integration and the CFTA implementation of the CFTA, especially challenges of TBTs.
- Increased cooperation among the African NSBs
- Awareness Creation among ARSO members, Kenyan Policymakers and citizens, Traders and SMEs Industry Players, on the role standardisation in sustainable development.
- Approved themes for the ARSO 2019-2020 Events (Africa Day of Standardisation and Essay Competition)
- Understanding the benefit of standardisation and the related activities in economic development of Africa
- Strengthen the strategic relationship between ARSO members and the Stakeholders.
- Involvement of the African Regulatory Bodies and Officials in the Standardisation Activities, given the inter relations between Standards and Technical Regulations.
THE PANARI HOTEL
Overlooking Nairobi National Park, on Mombasa Road, Panari hotel is 10 minutes’ drive from Jomo Kenyatta International Airport and . 7 kilometers away from the Nairobi city centre. All air-conditioned rooms feature a seating area, a work desk and tea and coffee-making facilities at The Panari Hotel Nairobi. An en suite bathroom with a bathrobe, slippers and a hairdryer is also offered. Each room includes a flat-screen TV with satellite channels. Free parking is provided. Panari Sky Centre features gift shops and a pharmacy.
Welcome to Nairobi
Nairobi is one of Africa’s most cosmopolitan city, Nairobi is Kenya’s beating heart, an exciting, maddening concrete jungle that jarringly counterpoints the untrammeled natural beauty to be found elsewhere in the country.
Nairobi, Kenya is the perfect place to experience the incredible wildlife and natural beauty of Africa. The destination simply offers a vacation experience like no other. Nairobi, Kenya’s capital and largest city, still conjures all the romance and adventure of its colorful colonial days. The city evolved from a humble camp for railway workers in 1899 to the capital of British East Africa by 1907. Today, Nairobi’s rich history and tribal culture is brought to life in its excellent museums. The Karen Blixen Museum is a big hit – especially with fans of the Out of Africa book and film, who come to see where the namesake Danish author toiled on her coffee farm in the beautiful Ngong Hills. Contrary to its name, Hell’s Gate National Park is actually a pleasant and comfortable way to experience nature in Kenya. The walking tour of the park offers sightings of many herbivores and exotic birds, as well as the incredible hot springs and gorges that inspired its fearsome. But even in such a bustling city, wildlife is a huge draw. This cosmopolitan capital is one of the only cities in the world with a safari park in its borders. A mere 15-minute drive from the skyscrapers of the city center, you can enjoy a classic African wildlife experience at Nairobi National Park. Lion, cheetah, zebra, wildebeest, giraffe, rhinoceros, and buffalo roam the sun-soaked savanna here, and animal lovers can cuddle baby elephants and connect with giraffes at the excellent animal sanctuaries nearby. Nairobi is also the gateway to the world-famous safari parks of Kenya, which have captivated adventure seekers for more than a century.
Visa and other Important Information
Kenya and Africa Tourist Information
A safari is an adventure to be enjoyed but also one that requires careful planning. Please find below some relevant tourist information for Kenya and East Africa to help you plan your trip to the 25th ARSO General Assembly Events.
Visa Information for Kenya and East Africa
Please note the Kenya E-Visa Application online and eligibility to facilitate the visa processing and for more information about your country’s visa policy with Kenya, under the link: http://evisa.go.ke/evisa.html, Eligibility – http://evisa.go.ke/eligibility.html
Delegates are requested to confirm the latest visa status from relevant authorities and Ministries in their countries, including the with the Kenya embassy in their countries. Information below may not be always be up to date due to changes in Kenyan policy.
Countries whose nationals require Referred Visas – Applications are sent to Nairobi for approval: Afghanistan, Armania, Iraq, Lebanon, Mali, North Korea, Tadjkistan, Syria, Jordan, Azerbaijan, Libya.
Countries whose nationals do not require a Visa to come to Kenya :
- Antigue And Barbuda, Tonga, The Bahamas, Trinidad & Tobago, Barbados, Tuvalu, Belize, Uganda, Botswana, Gambia, Brunei, Ghana, Darussalum, Grenada, Cyprus Papua, New Guinea, Fiji Islands, Samoa, Jamaica, Seychelles, Kiribati, Tanzania, Lesotho, Vanuatu, Malawi, Zambia, Malaysia( If Less Than 30 Days), Zimbabwe, Maldives, Ethiopia, Mauritus, Uruguay, Namibia, nIGERIATurkey, Nauru, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, St. Lucia, St. Vincent And The Grenadines, Swaziland, Sa Marino.
- Stateless persons not holding valid passports or other travel documents issued by their own country of nationality. This includes recognised refugees – holders of the United Nations refugee travel document.
- Nationals of any other country which does not appear above may obtain visa on application either at the mission or any kenya port of entry subject to fulfilment of the normal requirements. If you apply at the port of entry, you will not need a photograph.
- For nationals of United Kingdom, United States, India, Holland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and all countries not mentioned as requiring Referred Visas, the Visa may be obtained upon arrival at the international airports in Nairobi. However we do suggest that if possible, Visa be applied for in advance from your country of residence via the Kenya embassy, high commission or consulate.
Visa Charges : Single entry visa USD 50, Multiple entry visa (1 Year) USD100 , Transit Visa USD20, Referral Visa fee (non-refundable) USD 20: If you are planning on visiting Kenya and not going into another country as part of your Kenya trip [e.g. Tanzania], then you only need a single entry visa.
Immigration Requirements: When leaving the country, passengers will be asked to verify the contents of the baggage at the Customs desk. Tourists are cautioned that items made from Ivory, Rhino Horn, or any other wild animal body parts, including Bird feathers, are banned for sale and buying or carrying these in your baggage or exporting these is a criminal offence.
Passports: All visitors are required to carry a valid passport. Note that:
The passport should be valid for at least 6 months from date of exit from Kenya. The passport should have at least Two (2) blank pages.
Getting to Kenya
There are several airlines which fly to Kenya. These include Kenya Airways, KLM, British Airways, Virgin, Qatar, Emirates, Air India and South African Airways to name a few. The main international airport in Kenya is the Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in Nairobi.
Vaccination: All Visitors are required to carry there Yellow Fever Certificate which will be checked at the airport on arrival. Inoculation against Yellow fever and Cholera may be mandatory depending on the country where the travel originates. Anyone entering Kenya from or through a Yellow Fever infected area, must be in possession of a valid International certificate of Vaccination against Yellow Fever.
Malaria: It is advisable that you take malaria tablets before entering Kenya. Start the course at least one week before entering Kenya. Please consult your physician or General Practitioner.
Drinking water: Bottled mineral water is widely available in Kenya at reasonable prices. Tap water is not recommended for drinking.
Food and Drink
Kenya offers an impressive range of foods and drinks to suit all visitors’ needs from vegetarian diets to full course meals. Whether in a luxury city hotel or deep in the bush, a traveller is almost guaranteed to find a mouth-watering buffet with a wide variety of meats to fresh salads and drinks. The food is relatively safe to try whilst in a hotel or lodge which caters for international tourists. Soft drinks and alcohol are also readily available, cheap and safe to drink.
Kenya has a diverse climatic range from extremely hot and dry regions to cold and wet areas. We have listed below an idea of the various altitudes and how you should dress while there.
- Currently in Nairobi, the weather is cool and it is raining. Delegates are advised to carry warm clothings as the weather turns to be very cold at times.
- In the mountain region (5000ft and above), the climate here is wet and cold. Add gloves, strong foot wear and heavy rain gear.
- If you are in the coastal region, where the weather is very tropical and hot, wear comfortable loose cotton and some sun protection.
- In the eastern region (below 3000ft), normally hot, dry and dusty, you are advised to carry a hat, cotton pants and long sleeved shirts. Also carry sun protection.
- While in the highland areas (3000 – 5000ft), with a climate that ranges from cool / hot days and cold nights in addition to frequent rainfall, you are advised to add a sweater and rain jacket.
Like any other country, Kenya has a few security concerns but the tourism industry and the government are taking every possible step to ensure your safety during your visit to Kenya. Below are a few basic precautionary measures you should take:
- Avoid walking outside your hotel/ lodge/ camp after dark. Certain areas of African cities/ towns may be a risk during the day time as well. Such areas are normally not on any travel itinerary in any case.
- Keep your valuables in a safe place and when possible, out of view and be worry of conmen/women.
- When you do book a cab, book through a licensed, reputable company. Avoid taking cabs off the street and book these through your hotel.
- Within the parks, please note you are expected to take precautions regarding wildlife – be sure to take note of the guidelines.
Communication in Kenya is quite reliable owing to the many modes available such as the internet, mobile/cell phone communication, direct land line telephone and telephone booths plus radio call, just to name but a few. Nairobi, Mombasa and the main towns in Kenya and East Africa are well connected for all modes of communications. The most reliable is the mobile phone, which is widely used and cheap to buy.
Out in the national parks, virtually all safari lodges have a fixed line phone link though cell phone coverage in the safari locations is often not present or reliable. Some lodges also offer internet connectivity.
Kenya has an extensive road network. One drives on the left. All major roads are tarred. The state of the road surfaces is variable. The roads in the National Park are generally good gravel surfaces, but may at times be dusty or muddy depending on the weather. Certain roads become impassable in rain, even if you have a 4WD vehicle. However, travel is nonetheless comfortable.
There are Uber Taxi Services which through the Hotels, your can easily get for your journeys.
ACCOMODATION – RECOMMENDED HOTELS
Reservation and Pick up Logistics
Due to short notice on the hosting of the events in Kenya, the local transportation services will not be available for the delegates, therefore, kindly note the following:
- Delegates are requested to book the hotels directly quoting the ARSO Negotiated prices, as highlighted.
- Delegates are also requested to organise with the Hotels for the pickups from the Airport on Arriva and for travelling back on Departure or use public taxis.
- On the Same note, Delegates are requested to organise with the Hotels for Taxis to and from the venue, PANARI Hotel.
MOVING FORWARD FROM 24TH ARSO GENERAL ASSEMBLY JUNE 2018, DURBAN, SOUTH AFRICA – 25TH ARSO GENERAL ASSEMBLY EVENTS, NAIROBI, KENYA.
- ARSO Welcomes the Newly Appointed Chief Executives of its Member Countries
- ARSO PAYS Tributes to Departed Colleagues in Standardisation
- Sites to visit in Nairobi Click Here
Contacts for the 25th ARSO General Assembly Events
- Phoebe Gituku – firstname.lastname@example.org – +254772365849
- Samson Ombok – email@example.com, +254720297715
- Verah Akomo – firstname.lastname@example.org – +2547213185524
ARSO Central Secretariat
- Philip Okungu– email@example.com- +254712370735
- Mercy Mukoya – firstname.lastname@example.org – +254711175646
- Nadine Umutoni – email@example.com – +254726983590
- Dan Kithome – firstname.lastname@example.org – +254723680735.